Prototyping at a whiteboard

5 reasons not to prototype your AgTech product or service. Seriously?

(and 5 reasons why you should consider it)

Prototyping. Its all the rage in product development because of design thinking, lean, and minimum viable products. But it might not make sense for your agricultural product or service. Here are some reasons why:

  1. It takes too long. The window of opportunity is small, and the race is on to beat the competition. Execution is everything. Better for the team to just get coding.

    • Of course, if the team build head down the wrong track or your customers just don’t like or use it, you may not have saved time at all.

  2. It’s too expensive. Your budget is finite. If you have 100k to build a product, you can’t afford to waste 10k on fluff. Worse, if the prototype shows our idea is wrong, you’re going to have to spend again on another prototype!

    • Or you could spend all your budget on developing the real product. And then spend it again changing the product, instead of changing the prototype.

  3. Our team is very busy. I don’t want to distract them with a prototype or mock-ups. Can the developers just get underway on the work?

    • The developers can build something. But what? Unless they have amazing knowledge, they may go off on a tangent or interrupt your team instead.

  4. Prototypes are risky. You don’t mind creating wireframes and mock-ups, but it could be embarrassing if your customers don’t like them.

    • Instead, you can wait until the product is ready to discover that your customers don’t like it.

  5. You already know what the customer needs. Perhaps you were the customer in the past, or you have worked with them for years. Regardless, this idea is yours and you know what they need.

    • And no one likes to be wrong, or to find gaps in our knowledge. That said, I’d rather find those gaps as early as possible, and I’m sure you would too.

If you’ve read this far, you’ve probably realised there’s a bit of tongue-in-cheek at work above. To be fair, I’ve heard all those reasons from one or another customer. Or our team. Or me.

It can be tempting to skip from customer empathy and ideation straight into development. In the early days of a new service or product development, it seems to make sense to just get underway. Building and testing prototypes takes money, time, and customer goodwill. Done well, prototyping should deliver a huge return on that investment.

What is a prototype?

A prototype is an early model or an experiment that helps you learn about the thing that you hope to construct. It helps you turn the ideas you gain from building customer empathy into something tangible. Something you can “handle”, before you invest in building your full solution.

Why should you prototype your product or service?

Use prototypes at different times and in different ways to reap a variety of benefits:

  1. Use sketches and paper/card models when you are coming up with ideas. This helps stimulate more ideas by engaging different parts of your brain. The process must be easy and lightweight otherwise you’ll suffocate those ideas before they appear.

  2. Build storyboards and low-fidelity prototypes with your team and tame users. This “learning by doing ” will increase your understanding and identify gaps. You want to identify gaps early rather than have developers and testers do it later.

  3. Validate your ideas by testing prototypes with real customers or users, before you build your product. You may worry about showing an important customer something half-baked, and its ok to invest a little more time in making the prototype look good.

  4. Prototyping not only helps you “build the right thing”. You can also use it to not build the wrong thing. Kill an idea if it becomes obvious it won’t fly, and you’ll save far more than prototyping ever cost.

  5. Even digital prototypes are more “concrete” than ideas on paper, so they force you to face up to reality. You can’t read livestock tags by Wi-Fi from a drone (yet)? Or the data for the AI you had your heart set on doesn’t exist? Your prototype might have to show a system without these magic bits. If you can identify practical limitations early, you can manage expectations of your customers and stakeholders.

If you’re thinking about incorporating prototyping into your agricultural product or service, talk to us. We’d be happy to help you with where to start.

Build your skills in customer empathy, prototyping, and validation.
Talking with a farmer

How do you build empathy with your agricultural technology customers?

Customer Empathy will be well-known to anyone who has heard about design thinking. So too, for that matter, anyone who has attended an Ag Innovations Bootcamp. Customer empathy is fundamental to creating great design that meets people’s needs. So how do you do it?

Empathy or sympathy?

Often “customer empathy” can sound a bit soft and “fluffy”; and rural professionals won’t want us to “empathise” with them, will they?

It’s easy for us to mistake empathy for sympathy. Both words involve understanding.

  • Sympathy involves understanding emotional or physical hardships, and then offering comfort and assurance.
  • Empathy builds personal understanding of what others are feeling, and the ability to put yourself “in their shoes”.

Embrace what you don’t know

Design practitioners we work with exhibit a similarity – they cultivate a “relentless curiosity”.

You’ve experienced this yourself, with someone who took a deep and genuine interest in your work or hobby. They listened attentively and asked thoughtful follow-up questions. They made you feel as though you were the most interesting person on earth!

Too often, when we venture into the field to talk to customers, we try to validate our own thoughts. We are the experts. We ask questions to qualify the customer, and to quantify the value that our solution will offer.

But what if our intended solution is not what the customer needs? What if there is an opportunity for something even better and more interesting?

Prepared questions will help you start a conversation. Deep listening and genuine curiosity will help us learn more than we could imagine.

Many beats one, and one beats many

How many customers do you need to interview? Will one or two be enough?

It would be nice to think so. Interviews take time to arrange. They take a lot of time and energy to carry out, and they often involve much travel. You can’t usually interview agricultural workers on a city street with a clipboard.

If you interview too few people, it can be hard to distinguish the important from the frustration of the hour. We know that diversity is an essential to high performing teams and great decisions. Seeking diverse views will also help you to create better products or services.

Plan for at least five interviews. You should find both commonality and the breadth of variation between your interviewees.  If you’re finding great diversity (or your first interviews don’t fit your early adopter profile), you may need to find more.

If you need to interview that many, should you consider a focus group instead? Could you get a group of customers in a room or on a Skype call and make more progress?

We don’t recommend this.

Focus groups have a different dynamic to one-on-one discussions. They good for uncovering trends and areas of concern. Detailed insights into the jobs your customers are trying to do are less likely to surface.

Will all users share their experiences and frustrations in a focus group? You may only hear personal experiences from the extroverts. There’s also the risk of “group think”. People may agree with well-expressed comments from others, regardless of their personal experience.

Make the effort to interview customers as individuals, or at most in twos.

Go where they are

In our experience, there is some value in bringing farmers or rural professionals into a meeting room or board room. They are less prone to interruption, and you have more wall space for Post-It notes and diagrams.

Yet you miss seeing the actual environment where they work and will use your product or service. You may also miss the environmental influences that affect the tasks they are trying to do.

Being on the farm or in the customer’s work environment allows them to pick up equipment and show you how they use it. They can point and describe the flow of animals, the pressure of people and machines. You can observe the frustration of sunlight on displays.

Most important: when you bring an end user into the boardroom, they become an amateur designer. This might be valuable, but it also becomes easier to talk in general terms. You may map general processes and forget to delve into experience.

Go to where your customers and end users work. You’ll gain richer insights and higher fidelity than you ever could in the boardroom.

Build your skills in customer empathy, prototyping, and validation.
New grass establishment

#EvokeAg – Making the agritech ecosystem visible and discoverable

We recently attended and exhibited at EvokeAg, the new agrifood international technology event specifically for the food and farming community hosted by AgriFutures Australia.

EvokeAg brought together more than 1100 attendees from across the Australian and wider agriculture and agritech industries, including 100+ attendees from New Zealand and a substantial contingent from Israel. The event featured over 100 speakers from 20 countries, but importantly there was opportunity for all participants to share and be involved.

What was big?

Presenters, panels, exhibitors, and discussions covered a wide variety of topics. A few themes emerged:

  • The start-up and investment ecosystem – more about this below;
  • Irrigation and monitoring systems such as Lindsay FieldNet and Wildeye irrigation monitoring;
  • Automation and robotics (Robotics Plus, Yamaha, Bosch, and more);
  • Data collection, analysis, and the application of artificial intelligence. Comments like “Data is the new gold” abounded.

I’m not personally sure that data is the new gold. I think data is more like an ore that needs to be mined, processed, and refined to extract the real gold. Or maybe data is more like electricity – its intrinsic value is established from use, rather than collection.

Its all about the Ecosystem

We think that the biggest impact of EvokeAg is its impact on the agricultural innovation ecosystem. The event brought together a diverse, fragmented, and sometimes vaporous ecosystem of people and organisations and made it concrete and discoverable in the moment. Examples of groups brought together included:

  • Start-ups and new agritechnology players;
  • Investors, incubators and accelerators, and trade partners; and
  • Research and development organisations and funders.

Making connections

A particular genius of this event was the way that conversations and interactions were facilitated.

  • Braindates, facilitated by an app for discovery and bookings, brought together participants with shared interests, making it easy for those who did not know each other to connect.
  • Careful layout of the food stations, with plenty of tables, seats and leaners for eating encouraged fortuitous conversations, as did the set of food trucks outside providing lunch and evening food around a grassy courtyard.
  • A good blend of exhibitors, lounges, and a “start-up alley” encouraged attendees to look around and interact. Brad and I nearly lost count of the number of people who stopped by the Rezare Systems stand, took a seat and had a relaxed discussion.

The challenge for AgriFutures (the organisers of EvokeAg) and the wider industry is how to capitalise on the positive ecosystem effects to drive growth and innovation. The #growAg initiative announced at the conference, along with AusTrade’s Agriculture 4.0 focus should make a big difference. We’ll play our own part as well – continuing the conversations with those who met with us, and offering an Ag Innovations Bootcamp in early June, an in-depth workshop on design and customer engagement in agriculture, suitable for both start-ups and established Australian agribusinesses looking to innovate.

 

A young woman leaning on a farm gate

How to choose early customers for your agricultural innovation

We often discuss approaches to building customer empathy and validating product design, for example when we are helping our own customers or in events such as Ag Innovations Bootcamp.

One of the recurring questions is “are we working or testing with the right customers?” Often the answer is a clear “yes”, but not always. The cost to a business of developing an innovation based on feedback from the wrong customer can be enormous.

If you develop products or services for the agricultural sector, it is worth revisiting how you identify and choose your early customers.

Why early customers are important

At first glance, early customers are only those who first discover and adopt your service. But it’s often not that simple. They may arrive through your network. They may be hard-won with shoe leather, or by “growth hacking” your value proposition.

Early customers will influence your product in important ways:

  • Great product design comes from customer empathy. You build a deep understanding of your customer’s context, goals and needs. You must understand the real problem you are trying to solve for the customer, and its value to them.
  • You test your product or service prototypes with your early customers. These may be deliberate prototypes or your first MVP (Minimum Viable Product) release.
  • Early customers show traction. Your investors or your organisation look to adoption as proof of a viable business model.

Who are my early adopters?

Everett Rogers coined the term in his book The Diffusion of Innovations (1962). His theory about adoption of innovation used the results of 508 sociology studies. Much of the early work on diffusion focused on agricultural technology in the 1920s and ’30s. This was a time of widespread innovation in genetics and mechanisation.

Rogers defined five categories of adopters for an innovation:

  1. Innovators: willing to take a risk on innovation for its own sake.
  2. Early adopters: adopt technology that solves problems and provides status.
  3. Early majority: influenced by early adopters, they wait to adopt useful and valuable innovation.
  4. Late adopters: with some scepticism adopt after the majority.
  5. Laggards: see no value in change.

These are often seen in the diagram made popular in Geoffrey Moore’s Crossing the Chasm (1991).

Diffusion of innovations graph

Image attribution: Andre Ivanchuk

The percentages shown may not quite match your market, but studies show the shape of the curve and overall proportions generally apply.

Early adopters must be the initial target. Innovators love innovation for its own sake. They don’t represent the problems and needs of your larger market. You will end up solving the wrong problems. The early majority await evidence of success from early adopters.

How you can identify an early adopter

We like the way that Justin Wilcox defines early adopters in the light of the problem you are trying to solve (Focus Framework, 2016). It’s a practical way to think about what makes your early adopters distinctive.

Laggards Don’t have the problem you are trying to solve.
Late majority Have the problem, but don’t know it yet.
Early majority Have the problem, and know they have the problem, but are not yet paying to solve the problem.
Early adopters Have the problem, know they have the problem, and are already paying to solve the problem.

“Paying” to solve the problem doesn’t mean they are buying another product or service. They may be investing time or effort. They may be hiring staff or using a consultant. They may be “making do” or “using number 8 wire” (as we say in New Zealand).

What techniques might your early adopters be using to solve the problem? Those very techniques might be the indicators that help you identify the customers.

As early adopters know they have the problem and are trying to solve it, they may respond to an appropriate call to action. You might test if you can position your solution in a way that early adopters will recognise and respond.

Finding early adopter farmers and rural professionals

One you’ve worked out how to recognise or filter an early adopter, where do you look? These suggestions come from our team and Ag Innovations Bootcamp attendees:

Listen online: Tune into farming-oriented groups in Facebook or hashtags on Twitter. The best Facebook farming groups are often closed – you need to be a farmer or show you won’t spam the group to join. Use these groups to understand interests, events, and to ask good questions.

  1. Build your network: Create a diverse network of rural professionals, influencers, and others. Make sure you help others and give as well as take. Members of your network will help you meet potential early adopters.
  2. Hit the road: Attend the events that your early adopters are also likely to attend. There are many farming-focused events, conferences, and field days. Going along to listen and learn at farm open days is a great way to meet others.
  3. Learn the language: Agriculturalists I know are willing to speak with anyone trying to improve farming’s lot. Listen to them to build the language and questions that will help you influence customers.
Build your skills in customer empathy, prototyping, and validation.
Chess player considering strategy

Is this the year you take your agribusiness digital?

Is this the year you take your agribusiness digital?

It’s the time of year when people of all backgrounds make new year resolutions, institute new habits and reflect on their journey. It’s not uncommon for business leaders too, to reflect on business performance and goals for the future.

Here’s a question for your business planning during the quiet days at the start of the year:

Are you ready to take your agribusiness digital?

You’re thinking that your business is already digital. You have an ERP and a CRM, a web site and a mobile app. Your IT team has already virtualised your core business systems. What else is there?

You already use technology in your business. You may even use it well, though many agribusinesses are saddled with 10 to 15-year-old software and significant “technical debt” that acts as a drag on business agility. Taking your agribusiness digital however, implies something more significant: transformation.

Gartner defines digital transformation as the creation of new business designs that blur the boundary between the digital and physical worlds. More than just digitisation in support of business processes, it is making use of technology to change your:

  1. Customer engagement model;
  2. Connection with the ecosystem of your partners; and/or
  3. Core business model.

Most agriculture and food businesses, rural supply, and advisory businesses have grown over many years, starting life and establishing business models well before the connectivity, data flows and analysis of today were envisaged. Would your business look the same if it were started today?

1.      Customer Engagement

With the internet and mobility connecting most people on the planet (and likely your customers), how could your business leverage technology to substantially change how you engage with your customers, streamlining their experiences and introducing greater perceived value?

A short story of two pizza companies

Dominos’ Pizza (DXP) and Papa John’s Pizzas (PZZA) both had a market cap of around US $600M at the start of 2010. Both companies still sell pizzas with take-out and delivery options. Dominos invested early and continuously in technology innovation for customer engagement, radically changing the way that pizza is ordered, and delivery is tracked. The value proposition for customers was a different, improved, and easier experience in ordering pizza. A benefit for Dominos was an increase in average order value and a massive switch from phone to internet orders. Arguably, Dominos has set the customer engagement bar that other pizza franchises have followed, and in the process grown its market cap to over US $12B, while Papa John’s followed incrementally, and has grown to US $3B.

2. Connected Ecosystems

What transformative opportunities could your business leverage by effectively connecting its digital information with suppliers and supply-chain partners? Common data standards, APIs, principled and secure sharing of data open the way for you and your partners to gain new insights and radically change business logistics.

Seven of the top 12 largest companies in the world by market capitalisation: Alibaba, Alphabet (Google), Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Microsoft, and Tencent – are ecosystem players, sharing data and common services with their supply chains and partners. At least one of those companies may have been too connected on occasion! We recommend principled and secure sharing.

Benefits of an open platform

Newspaper “The Guardian” developed its open platform in 2009 and has been evolving it ever since. The platform provides APIs for developers and for partners. Many sites and mobile services use the Guardian API to deliver timely news, and the Guardian benefits with referrals, ad placements, and the ability to understand how and when people consume its content. Partner integrations allow the Guardian to crowd-source additional data for its services (such as location tagging), and to position its brand beside influential partners.

3. Changing Business Models

Many of our agricultural and service businesses, or their forerunners, started life 80 or 100 years ago. The fundamentals remain, but models of communication and distribution, use of information and analysis have all changed dramatically. Our business models – how we create and monetise value – have changed more incrementally.

Digital transformation offers agricultural sector businesses the opportunity to reframe their business models for the new and evolving business environment.  Ford has started to redefine itself as “a mobility company and not just as a car or truck manufacturer”. GE is seeking to make analytics the new “core to the company”. Certainly, if you were starting a personal transport company today in the face of Uber and Lyft, it would not look like an existing taxi company.

How might your business leverage technology and connectedness to create value in different ways?

 

Considering your digital agribusiness options for 2019?  Contact us for a free initial discussion.

Consider using one of our digital agriculture strategists, Andrew Cooke or Julian Gairdner to facilitate a workshop our help with your thinking.

Person in field stares at the sky

Three steps to your agritech product vision

You’re creating the future: a product or service that does not yet exist. How do you ensure your team is on the same page? Do you tell them how they will build it? How it will work? Or do you paint the picture of how it will make people’s lives better?

Your investors and partners are the same. Your product vision is the core of your business vision, so you want key people to understand and love it. Still, formalising your product vision seems like another chore in your busy schedule. You might even fear your idea will lose some of its magic in the harsh light of the day.

A clear representation of your vision:

  • Helps you communicate the vision to your team, your partners, and potential investors. You can be confident that you’ve passed on the key elements and not missed anything out.
  • Inspires others! People who believe and buy-in to your vision will go above and beyond the call of duty to make it a reality.

Here are three keys to get you started on composing your agricultural product vision.

Start with the users

Identify who your intended users are and are not. What problems will you solve for them? How much do those problems matter to your intended users? Are you tackling their problems or forcing your own solution?

The Einstellung Effect is a psychological term. It describes how we can fall in to the trap of applying a familiar approach or solution to problems. When all we have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail. This is a great reminder to us to fall in love with problems, not our solutions. Your agritech product vision should describe the problems you want to solve.

Think big

The eventual picture is larger than your first release. Think about what your vision looks like over the next three, five, or even ten years.

At the same time, your first product release (or releases) don’t need to fulfil the entire vision. Break the plan into bite-size chunks that you can achieve and learn from them on the way.

Trace weak signals and trends

Take a view about the way we will solve problems in two to five years. You’re creating the future, so yesterday’s rules may not apply.

I’m not suggesting divorce from reality. Ensure you have time and space to read, research, and test. Seek to understand how people might work in the future, and how your product might contribute. If your product is a service (to some extent all are), how might it fit with the ways your users want to communicate?

Your product vision is not a product specification. It’s not an elevator pitch either. Whether it is a story or bullets in a slide deck, it’s the way you bring your team and partners with you on the journey. It should help them pull together and solve the problems that count.

As your Agritech product vision evolves, there is one more thing to do: communicate relentlessly. Share your vision with your team and your partners. Evolve it based on what you learn.

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Photo of person taking notes

Ag Innovations Bootcamp – All Coming Together

Things are coming together for the Ag Innovations Bootcamp (5-6 Dec, Mystery creek, Hamilton).

We’ve put our heads together with NZ National Fieldays and our partners Amazon Web Services and support from AGMARDT to bring you some great keynote speakers:

Jenene Crossan – The brilliant digital entrepreneur behind some of new Zealand’s most recognisable digital brands, including nzgirl.co.nz and her latest project Flossie.

David Downs – A General Manager at New Zealand Trade and Enterprise (NZTE), he’s an ex-comedian, TV and Radio actor, author of No.8 Rewired and No.8 Recharged

And now announcing facilitator and creative coach Jeremy Suisted. Jeremy is founder and director of Creativate, an innovation consultancy and is a passionate and driven communication expert who can turn any endeavour into a success.

Don’t miss out on these incredible speakers and this enlightening experience!

Ag Innovations Bootcamp

Ag Innovations Bootcamp – Early-bird Special

Do you have an idea for what could be the next great agricultural or ag-tech product or service? Looking for ways to reliably convert ideas and concepts into products or services that meet the real needs of the market and your business?

Ag Innovations Bootcamp (5-6 December 2018, Hamilton, New Zealand) is a two-day workshop for:

  • Ag-sector visionaries;
  • Product managers and owners; and
  • Business leaders looking to “change up” their business

Hosted by NZ National Fieldays and Rezare Systems, with our partners Amazon Web Services and AGMARDT, Ag Innovations Bootcamp is packed with inspiring speakers, case studies from other product managers, hands-on learning and networking opportunities. You’ll learn techniques you can apply to build and validate business cases, understand user needs, and construct lightweight prototypes.

The early-bird offer for Ag Innovation Bootcamp runs until 9th November 2018.

For more information go to https://rezare.com/bootcamp/

 

Product team (source: iStockPhoto)

5 tactics of an effective agritech product manager

Why are relatively few agritech products achieving adoption at scale when billions of dollars are being invested internationally every year? New start-ups appear almost weekly. And established companies are shifting from small innovations around the edges to major projects that sit at the heart of business plans.

Yet for all this activity, few product ideas seemingly “make it”.

We work with many agricultural companies – start-ups and established organisations – to help them develop smart digital products and services. In our experience, there’s a strong correlation between a business’s approach to product management, and their success in developing meaningful products or services that get used. The choice of product manager, the scope and objectives of their role, and their level of skill and authority, drives the success (or otherwise) of the product or service development.

The CEO or a Project Sponsor may define the overall business outcomes and vision, and project managers may be concerned with product budget and timeline, but the product manager is at once the “voice of the product” to the business, and simultaneously translates the “voice of the customer” to the development team (this part of the role is also called product owner). They decide the detailed problems the team will try to solve, the relative priority of those problems, and when the solution is complete enough to be put into the hands of customers.

Here are five tactics an agritech product manager can use to be more effective in their role:

1.      Allocate your attention

A product manager juggles many tasks. They must understand scope, be able to prioritise effectively, understand how the team is delivering and what is planned. It’s incredibly hard to do this if the product only gets a small time-slice of your attention.

You won’t be able to effectively manage your product by turning up for a fortnightly sprint planning session. Product managers need to be able to spend time with both stakeholders and the development team. They participate in customer interviews, review the product in showcases put on by the development team, and are deeply involved in product planning workshops.

2.      Build stakeholder relationships

New products and services are built at the intersection of customer or user desirability, business viability, and technical feasibility:

  • Does this product solve a real problem for its users, and can they readily get the benefits?
  • Are customers willing to pay for a solution, and is this solution sufficiently “better” that they will switch?
  • Does this product or service meet the objectives and fit the strategic direction of the company?
  • Is there a business model that makes sense for the company and which could be profitable?
  • Can it be built to operate as envisioned, at a cost the company can justify?

Effective product managers really understand the needs of their users and customers – their behaviours and the problems the product is trying to solve. They use observation and interviews to inform their opinions and seek data from the existing tools or products that customers use.

Product managers must also build trust with the business, effectively communicating how the direction and priorities chosen for the product meet the objectives of the business.

3.      Discover, don’t assume

It’s very tempting to build technology products and services the way corporate computer systems were developed in the past: envisage a solution, document it as a set of requirements, and set the development team to work. When the developers and testers are done, roll out the solution (or pass it through to sales and marketing).

Effective product managers know that detailed customer needs are emergent, and so too must be the solution to those needs. They make use of product discovery activities: carrying out interviews, running experiments, and building prototypes. They know that testing an idea by building a prototype and validating that thinking with real users may not only be an order of magnitude quicker and less expensive than building software, it avoids the huge waste of developing robust, performant, tested software that does not address the real problem.

Software and hardware will still need to be built, but continuously using discovery activities to understand and address customer problems reduces the risk of building a great solution to the wrong problems.

4.      Prioritise value

If customer and user problems and the solutions are emergent, how can you effectively manage the work of a development team (or teams)? How do you decide what gets released to customers, and when?

Effective product managers decide what discovery and development tasks are the highest priority to work on at any point in time. They pay great attention to the “product backlog” – the set of problems waiting to be worked on, ideas waiting to be tested, and validated ideas waiting to be turned into production software. They may visualise these using story maps, or as items on a Kanban board.

This is not “project management”, seeking to most efficiently have all the tasks completed on time and within budget. Rather, the product manager is making value-based decisions about which tasks or stories (feature sets) are the most valuable to do now, and which can be deferred (and might never be done if sufficient value can be delivered to customers and the business without them).

Product managers consider value on multiple scales:

  • Which stories deliver the most value to customers and end users?
  • Which stories help the company achieve its objectives (revenue, customer acquisition, or other outcomes)?
  • Which activities must be prioritised for the product development process to be successful (for instance, prioritising a discovery or validation activity that may change the overall shape of the product)?
  • Which essential dependencies must be built for more valuable stories to work?

5.      Release early and often

This may be an agile mantra, but it remains valid. It’s tempting to hold off putting your product into customers hands until it is “complete”. This is especially the case for established companies who worry about reputational risk.

Delaying until the product or service is largely “complete” misses the opportunity to learn how customers choose to use your product or service. They may pay no attention to that wonderful feature you slaved over and be thrilled by other functions. You may discover that the value you expected just isn’t there, and that you need to “pivot” to a different approach. Far better to do this early than wait until the entire budget is spent.

For organisations worried about reputational risk, limited pilots are a useful tool, whether with a subset of staff or a small group of customers. Early adopters may not fully represent your entire eventual market, but carefully chosen they can provide learning and become advocates to your broader market.

Learn More

We use a variety of tools and techniques to support Product Managers in their role, including discovery techniques and activities, dual-track agile (a team working on discovery and a team developing prioritised stories), and flexible scope contracts that focus on value delivery in a time frame rather than a fixed set of requirements.

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Looking at sheep performance

Ways smarter tech can accelerate livestock genetic progress

I started writing about the case for smarter tech in cattle and sheep breeding programmes a while ago, and quickly realised there was more than would fit in a single blog post. In my previous post I described how technology can help us increase the pace of genetic progress, by:

  • Measuring what we can’t easily see, including a range of important traits such as efficiency, emissions and disease resistance; and
  • Reducing errors in recording and transcription.

There are two further areas where smart technology can and is helping:

Cut collection costs

How much does it cost to collect a phenotype for an animal?

A phenotype is the observable characteristics of an individual that result from both its genotype and the environment. When you collect sufficient phenotypic information about many individuals, you can adjust for environmental effects, and predict the genetic merit of that animals. Collecting phenotypes involves measuring details such as calving ease, weight gains, progeny survival and other characteristics of economic value to farmers and consumers.

Current technology for DNA analysis tell us more about the genetic similarity and differences between animals (their genetic relatedness) than their outright performance. There are relatively few simple gene interactions you can measure with a DNA test.

What DNA testing helps with is the challenge of recording which animals are related to each other, especially as pedigree recording gets harder with larger sets of animals. For the DNA test to be useful, it must be able to be statistically connected to animals that have had phenotypes measured.

As Dr Mike Coffey of SRUC, wrote in 2011, “In the age of the Genotype, Phenotype is king!

Phenotyping will continue to be required. Livestock breeders will need a pool of accurate and comprehensive phenotype observations to support both new and existing breeding objectives, connected to the growing pool of genotyped animals.

Measuring animals is time-consuming and expensive: the tedious task of observing and measuring characteristics of animals, linking these to the correct animal records, and transcribing the observations into computer systems.

With the need for ongoing, and potentially more detailed phenotype recording, technology is our friend. From automated weighing and electronic identification to cameras, sensors, and deep learning, properly configured and managed technologies reduce the cost of data collection – especially for larger operations and at commercial scale.

We’ve helped several organisations organise and automate their phenotype recording, integrating electronic identification and a range of other technologies, and streaming that data back to central databases.

Better buying behaviour

What really drives buying decisions?

Ultimately livestock breeding is driven by demand.  Livestock breeders focus their selection efforts on traits that drive economic performance such as:

  • Fertility;
  • Birth weight and survival;
  • Feed conversion efficiency and growth rates or milk production;
  • Carcass characteristics or milk characteristics;
  • Docility, resistance or resilience to disease;

and more.  In the livestock industry, this is presented as the predicted benefit to future generations (typically termed EPDs or EBVs depending on your species, breed, and country). The EBVs or EPDs are combined into economic indexes where each is given a $ or £ weighting based on its impact in a typical farm system and usually delivered as tabular reports and graphs to buyers.

And what do buyers select on?

  • In our experience, New Zealand dairy farmers make great use of the primary economic index – Breeding Worth or BW, combining that with decisions about breed and gestation length.
  • In the sheep industry, breed and breeder decisions are often the primary decider. Once a breeder is selected, the numbers are used to buy the best animals one can afford.
  • In the NZ and Australian beef industry, an expert tells me that for animals sold at auction, the closest purchase price correlation is with liveweight: in their opinion, animals are often valued on how big they are.

When sheep and beef farmers are presented with multiple EBVs and indexes, it can be overwhelming, and it is not surprising some farmers revert to assessing a ram visually, negating the value of genetics programmes.

I’m a great fan of Daniel Kahneman’s Thinking Fast, Thinking Slow, where he points out the challenge we have with quantifying difficult or unknown measures.

“If a satisfactory answer to a hard question is not found quickly, System 1 will find a related question that is easier and will answer it. I call the operation of answering one question in place of another substitution.”  – Daniel Kahneman, Thinking Fast, Thinking Slow.

If understanding EBV’s and indexes seems difficult, you’re most likely to substitute an easier question – how good the ram looks or how knowledgeable the breeder seems – without even realising you have done so.

How can technology help here? We can use technology to make ourselves smarter – or the questions simpler. For instance, there’s potential to create a data-driven system that analyses your current farm system and recommends which economic index or other measure you should use when choosing animals. Or perhaps a tool that with a few simple selections works out how much you should spend on rams or bulls, finds those at a sale that meet your needs, and returns a ranked short list that you can use in your final decisions.

Smarter technology for livestock buyers is a key area where the industry can make real progress on the rate of genetic gain, and a strong understanding of how people make decisions will be critical to its success.